Chelsea Manning: I leaked reports after seeing how Americans ignored wars | US news | The Guardian

Manning describes ‘two worlds’ – one in the US and one she witnessed in Iraq – in New York Times interview days after her release from military prison

Fuente: Chelsea Manning: I leaked reports after seeing how Americans ignored wars | US news | The Guardian


The U.S. Has Ramped Up Airstrikes Against ISIS in Raqqa, and Syrian Civilians Are Paying the Price

Thanks to camera phones and social media, the deadly consequences of U.S. military operations are indeed being recorded, shared, and watched around the world on an unprecedented scale. But while civilian deaths are regularly reported in local media outlets in the Middle East, they are seldom reported in detail by international media.

Fuente: The U.S. Has Ramped Up Airstrikes Against ISIS in Raqqa, and Syrian Civilians Are Paying the Price


The stench of the Iraq war lingers behind today’s preoccupation with fake news | Jeff Sparrow | Opinion | The Guardian

If world leaders can deceive voters about the greatest foreign policy debacle in a generation, why should a president today worry about casually lying about the crowds at his inauguration?

Fuente: The stench of the Iraq war lingers behind today’s preoccupation with fake news | Jeff Sparrow | Opinion | The Guardian


Julian Assange confirms he is willing to travel to US after Manning decision | Media | The Guardian

WikiLeaks tweeted last week that Assange would agree to US extradition if Obama granted Manning clemency. Asked during a web broadcast on Thursday if he would now leave the embassy, Assange said: “I stand by everything I said, including the offer to go to the United States if Chelsea Manning’s sentence was commuted.”

Fuente: Julian Assange confirms he is willing to travel to US after Manning decision | Media | The Guardian


Chelsea Manning did the right thing. Finally, Barack Obama has too | Trevor Timm | Opinion | The Guardian

At the time of her revelations, she was the most important whistleblower since Daniel Ellsberg. Upon hearing the news today, Ellsberg said this: “Once in a while, someone does what they ought to do. Some go to prison for it, for seven years; some accept exile for life. But sometimes even a president does it. And today, it was Obama.”

Fuente: Chelsea Manning did the right thing. Finally, Barack Obama has too | Trevor Timm | Opinion | The Guardian


Julian Assange ready for US extradition, one of his lawyers suggests | Media | The Guardian

A lawyer for Julian Assange has indicated that the WikiLeaks founder is ready to face extradition to the US after Barack Obama commuted the sentence of US army whistleblower Chelsea Manning.

Fuente: Julian Assange ready for US extradition, one of his lawyers suggests | Media | The Guardian


Chelsea Manning’s prison sentence commuted by Barack Obama | US news | The Guardian

The White House insisted on Tuesday that Assange’s offer to submit to extradition if Obama “grants Manning clemency” did not influence the president’s action.

Fuente: Chelsea Manning’s prison sentence commuted by Barack Obama | US news | The Guardian


Obama libera a exsoldado que actuó como fuente en caso WikiLeaks

El presidente estadounidense, Barack Obama, conmutó la pena de prisión a quien fuera fuente de Wikileaks, Chelsea Manning.Según la información de la Casa Blanca, la exsoldado será liberada el próximo 17 de mayo, aunque se encontraba condenada a una pena de cárcel de 35 años.

Fuente: Obama libera a exsoldado que actuó como fuente en caso WikiLeaks


Victory over Isis will stream live on Facebook. But defeat won’t | Technology | The Guardian

The war in Iraq is being broadcast 24/7. But don’t think for a moment that the authorities have surrendered their control over the media

Fuente: Victory over Isis will stream live on Facebook. But defeat won’t | Technology | The Guardian


Facebook backs down from ‘napalm girl’ censorship and reinstates photo | Technology | The Guardian

“After hearing from our community, we looked again at how our Community Standards were applied in this case. An image of a naked child would normally be presumed to violate our Community Standards, and in some countries might even qualify as child pornography. In this case, we recognize the history and global importance of this image in documenting a particular moment in time.”

Fuente: Facebook backs down from ‘napalm girl’ censorship and reinstates photo | Technology | The Guardian


Israel action threatens to close down rights group and ‘chill’ free speech | World news | The Guardian

A high-profile Israeli human rights group that publishes the anonymous testimonies of soldiers in the Palestinian territories is facing a court hearing that threatens to shut down its work in what is being viewed as a crucial test case for civil society.The case, which will be heard in court next week, is being brought by the Israeli government, which is demanding that Breaking the Silence identify anonymous serving military personnel who have given it testimony relating to alleged crimes in the 2014 Gaza war. The group says this is likely to deter future potential testifiers coming forward.

Fuente: Israel action threatens to close down rights group and ‘chill’ free speech | World news | The Guardian


The racist hijacking of Microsoft’s chatbot shows how the internet teems with hate | World news | The Guardian

Microsoft was apologetic when its AI Twitter feed started spewing bigoted tweets – but the incident simply highlights the toxic, often antisemitic, side of social media

Fuente: The racist hijacking of Microsoft’s chatbot shows how the internet teems with hate | World news | The Guardian


How the changing media is changing terrorism | Jason Burke | World news | The Guardian

The long read: Just like news organisations, terrorists need an audience – and both have adapted their tactics to keep your attention

Fuente: How the changing media is changing terrorism | Jason Burke | World news | The Guardian


Those Demanding Free Speech Limits to Fight ISIS Pose a Greater Threat to U.S. Than ISIS

We’ve been told for years that The Terrorists “hate our freedoms,” yet we cannot seem to rid ourselves of those who think the solution is to voluntarily abolish those freedoms ourselves.

Fuente: Those Demanding Free Speech Limits to Fight ISIS Pose a Greater Threat to U.S. Than ISIS


What's Scarier: Terrorism, or Governments Blocking Websites in its Name? – The Intercept

What’s Scarier: Terrorism, or Governments Blocking Websites in its Name? – The Intercept.

Featured photo - What’s Scarier: Terrorism, or Governments Blocking Websites in its Name?

The French Interior Ministry on Monday ordered that five websites be blocked on the grounds that they promote or advocate terrorism. “I do not want to see sites that could lead people to take up arms on the Internet,” proclaimed Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve.

When the block functions properly, visitors to those banned sites, rather than accessing the content of the sites they chose to visit, will be automatically redirected to the Interior Ministry website. There, they will be greeted by a graphic of a large red hand, and text informing them that they were attempting to access a site that causes or promotes terrorism: “you are being redirected to this official website since your computer was about to connect with a page that provokes terrorist acts or condones terrorism publicly.”

No judge reviews the Interior Ministry’s decisions. The minister first requests that the website owner voluntarily remove the content he deems transgressive; upon disobedience, the minister unilaterally issues the order to Internet service providers for the sites to be blocked. This censorship power is vested pursuant to a law recently enacted in France empowering the interior minister to block websites.

Forcibly taking down websites deemed to be supportive of terrorism, or criminalizing speech deemed to “advocate” terrorism, is a major trend in both Europe and the West generally. Last month in Brussels, the European Union’s counter-terrorism coordinator issued a memo proclaiming that “Europe is facing an unprecedented, diverse and serious terrorist threat,” and argued that increased state control over the Internet is crucial to combating it.

The memo noted that “the EU and its Member States have developed several initiatives related to countering radicalisation and terrorism on the Internet,” yet argued that more must be done. It argued that the focus should be on “working with the main players in the Internet industry [a]s the best way to limit the circulation of terrorist material online.” It specifically hailed the tactics of the U.K. Counter-Terrorism Internet Referral Unit (CTIRU), which has succeeded in causing the removal of large amounts of material it deems “extremist”:

In addition to recommending the dissemination of “counter-narratives” by governments, the memo also urged EU member states to “examine the legal and technical possibilities to remove illegal content.”


Francia bloquea cinco páginas web por apología del terrorismo yihadista | Internacional | EL PAÍS

Francia bloquea cinco páginas web por apología del terrorismo yihadista | Internacional | EL PAÍS.

 

Primera vez que se toma esta medida a través de un decreto que no exige decisión judicial

 

 

 

Así sale el mensaje de censura emitido por el Ministerio del Interior francés. / Captura de imagen

El Gobierno francés ha aplicado este fin de semana por vez primera el decreto aprobado el 4 de febrero pasado y que le permite bloquear páginas web que hagan apología del terrorismo. Se trata de una decisión administrativa que no requiere decisión previa de un juez y que, a demanda del Ministerio del Interior, los proveedores de Internet deben aplicar en el plazo de 24 horas. En total, son cinco las páginas de presunta propaganda yihadista las que han quedado bloqueadas este lunes, según ha confirmado Interior.

La alerta la dio por la mañana el corresponsal en Túnez y Libia de la RFI, David Thomson, en su cuenta de Twitter. “¡Una página de información islámica censurada en Francia sin decisión judicial!”, anunció a primera hora de la mañana el periodista. Se trataba de una página web en la que se defendían las acciones yihadistas en Siria e Irak, según el mismo Thomson, autor del libro Los franceses yihadistas. La página cerrada era www.islamic-news.info. Tras la intervención gubernamental, al acceder a ella aparecen el logo del Ministerio del Interior y una leyenda en letras rojas que advierte de que dicha página provocaba acciones terroristas. Este ministerio informó unas horas más tarde la censura de un total de cinco páginas entre las que está también una de al-Hayat Media Center, que se encarga de la comunicación del Estado Islámico. El sitio web seguía por la tarde activo.


EE UU condena a un exagente de la CIA por revelar información clasificada | Internacional | EL PAÍS

EE UU condena a un exagente de la CIA por revelar información clasificada | Internacional | EL PAÍS.


Jeffrey Sterling fue acusado de entregar a un periodista datos de un programa contra el sistema nuclear iraní

James Risen, el periodista del ‘Times’ que supuestamente recibió información secreta del agente. / BRENDAN SMIALOWSKI (AFP)

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El triángulo lo forman un periodista del diario The New York Times, un exagente de los servicios de inteligencia y el Gobierno de Estados Unidos. En el centro, un programa de la CIA para sabotear el sistema nuclear de Irán. Es uno de los nueve casos en los que la Administración del presidente Barack Obama se ha querellado contra un espía por filtrar información a la prensa. Y ha vuelto a ganar.

Jeffrey Sterling fue condenado este lunes por nueve cargos que abarcan desde revelar información relativa a la “seguridad nacional” a James Risen, periodista y escritor del Times, hasta obstrucción a la justicia. El exagente, de 47 años, permanecerá en libertad hasta el 24 de abril, cuando conozca su sentencia, tras pasar los últimos cinco años intentando demostrar su inocencia.

El Fiscal General, Eric Holder, ha calificado la decisión del jurado en contra de Sterling como “justa y apropiada”. Según el responsable del Departamento de Justicia, “las filtraciones pusieron vidas en peligro y constituyeron una grave violación de la confianza depositada por los ciudadanos” en el agente.

El Gobierno ha asegurado durante el desarrollo de este caso que Sterling actuó por despecho tras ser despedido de la CIA en 2003. El exagente habría contactado con Risen para denunciar lo que consideraba un caso de discriminación laboral, aunque después acabó proporcionándole más información sobre el programa en el que había trabajado y que tenía como objetivo sabotear el sistema nuclear iraní.

El debate sobre la protección de reporteros ha llegado hasta el Congreso, donde se debatió la creación de una nueva ley ‘escudo’ para la prensa

El caso de Sterling cobró especial relevancia en EE UU por estar implicado un periodista del diario más importante del país y que declaró estar dispuesto a ingresar en prisión antes que revelar su fuente. Según el Gobierno, la persona de la que recibió datos para su libro ‘State of War’ siempre fue Sterling, quien no sólo dio detalles de las operaciones en las que estuvo implicado, sino que también puso en peligro a otros agentes.

La negativa de Risen reabrió además un debate entre los medios estadounidenses sobre la protección de sus periodistas en casos como éste. El Gobierno no se querelló contra el escritor, pero sí le exigió que revelara su fuente. A pesar de que el derecho a la confidencialidad sobre el origen de la información está reconocido en varios países e instituciones internacionales, el Gobierno federal de EE UU no lo estipula, por lo que Risen podía haber ido a prisión.


GCHQ captured emails of journalists from top international media | UK news | The Guardian

GCHQ captured emails of journalists from top international media | UK news | The Guardian.

 

• Snowden files reveal emails of BBC, NY Times and more
• Agency includes investigative journalists on ‘threat’ list
• Editors call on Cameron to act against snooping on media

 

GCHQ
The journalists’ communications were among 70,000 emails harvested in less than 10 minutes on one day in November 2008 by GCHQ. Photograph: GCHQ/EPA

GCHQ’s bulk surveillance of electronic communications has scooped up emails to and from journalists working for some of the US and UK’s largest media organisations, analysis of documents released by whistleblower Edward Snowden reveals.

Emails from the BBC, Reuters, the Guardian, the New York Times, Le Monde, the Sun, NBC and the Washington Post were saved by GCHQ and shared on the agency’s intranet as part of a test exercise by the signals intelligence agency.

The disclosure comes as the British government faces intense pressure to protect the confidential communications of reporters, MPs and lawyers from snooping.

The journalists’ communications were among 70,000 emails harvested in the space of less than 10 minutes on one day in November 2008 by one of GCHQ’s numerous taps on the fibre-optic cables that make up the backbone of the internet.

The communications, which were sometimes simple mass-PR emails sent to dozens of journalists but also included correspondence between reporters and editors discussing stories, were retained by GCHQ and were available to all cleared staff on the agency intranet. There is nothing to indicate whether or not the journalists were intentionally targeted.

The mails appeared to have been captured and stored as the output of a then-new tool being used to strip irrelevant data out of the agency’s tapping process.

New evidence from other UK intelligence documents revealed by Snowden also shows that a GCHQ information security assessment listed “investigative journalists” as a threat in a hierarchy alongside terrorists or hackers.


‘Freedom of expression’ anti-snooping campaign launched over Ripa changes | Politics | The Guardian

‘Freedom of expression’ anti-snooping campaign launched over Ripa changes | Politics | The Guardian.

Campaigners fear draft code of Ripa legislation will allow police sweeping powers to access phone and email records of journalists, lawyers and doctors
Armed police officers Houses of Parliament
Armed police officers inside the grounds of the Houses of Parliament in London. Photograph: Justin Tallis/AFP/Getty Images

An urgent campaign has been launched for a “freedom of expression” law to protect confidential journalists’, MPs’ and lawyers’ phone and communications records being secretly snooped on by the police.

Senior editors and lawyers condemned as “wholly inadequate” safeguards put forward by Theresa May in December to meet concerns over the police use of surveillance powers in a code of practice linked to the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 (Ripa).

The critics of the draft code fear that the police will still have sweeping powers allowing them to authorise themselves to access the phone and email records of professionals such as journalists, lawyers, doctors, MPs and priests who handle privileged, confidential information.

More than 3,000 national and regional editors are being asked to sign a joint letter from the Society of Editors and Press Gazette, the industry’s journal, condemning the Home Office joint code for failing to recognise “the overarching importance of protecting journalists’ sources”.

The campaign comes as the prime minister, David Cameron, called for an extension of the laws that give snooping powers to security services with a plan to ban encrypted messages in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo Paris attacks.


13 ejemplos de que la censura a la libertad de expresión consigue justo lo contrario | Verne EL PAÍS

13 ejemplos de que la censura a la libertad de expresión consigue justo lo contrario | Verne EL PAÍS.


El atentado contra Charlie Hebdo tampoco servirá para nada

Portada de Charlie Hebdo del 2 de enero de 2011. El nuevo redactor jefe de "Sharia Hebdo" amenaza con "cien latigazos si no te mueres de risa"
Portada de Charlie Hebdo del 2 de enero de 2011. El nuevo redactor jefe de “Sharia Hebdo” amenaza con “cien latigazos si no te mueres de risa”

 

Tres hombres han entrado durante la mañana del miércoles en el semanario satírico francés Charlie Hebdo armados con Kalashnikov y han asesinado a 12 personas, dejando malheridas a otras cuatro. El semanario había sido objeto de amenazas y ataques, después publicar en 2006 caricaturas de Mahoma. De hecho, fue atacado con cócteles molotov en 2011, tras una portada en la que el profeta aparecía como redactor jefe de un número bautizado como Sharia Hebdo.

Si estos asesinatos pretendían que las caricaturas dejaran de circular, han fracasado: a los pocos minutos estos dibujos inundaban Twitter y aparecíangalerías en muchos medios de comunicación. En redes, muchos recogían ademásuna propuesta: que las portadas de los diarios del día siguiente al atentado llevaran las caricaturas de Charlie Hebdo.

Salvando las distancias, es un ejemplo (trágico) del efecto Streisand: cuando alguien intenta censurar algo en internet, se divulga aún más. Este efecto debe su nombre a la denuncia de la actriz y cantante para exigir que se retirara de una web una foto aérea de su casa. La denuncia sólo consiguió que la imagen se difundiera hasta el punto de que aparece hasta en la Wikipedia. El efecto contraproducente de la censura se potencia con internet, pero no es exclusivo de la red, como podemos ver en estos trece ejemplos que muestran que más tarde o más temprano, la libertad de expresión tiene todas las de ganar.


North Korea/Sony Story Shows How Eagerly U.S. Media Still Regurgitate Government Claims – The Intercept

North Korea/Sony Story Shows How Eagerly U.S. Media Still Regurgitate Government Claims – The Intercept.

BY GLENN GREENWALD 

Featured photo - North Korea/Sony Story Shows How Eagerly U.S. Media Still Regurgitate Government Claims

The identity of the Sony hackers is still unknown. President Obama, in a December 19 press conference, announced: “We can confirm that North Korea engaged in this attack.” He then vowed: “We will respond. . . . We cannot have a society in which some dictator some place can start imposing censorship here in the United States.”

The U.S. Government’s campaign to blame North Korea actually began two days earlier, when The New York Times – as usual – corruptly granted anonymity to “senior administration officials” to disseminate their inflammatory claims with no accountability. These hidden “American officials” used the Paper of Record to announce that they “have concluded that North Korea was ‘centrally involved’ in the hacking of Sony Pictures computers.” With virtually no skepticism about the official accusation, reporters David Sanger and Nicole Perlroth deemed the incident a “cyberterrorism attack” and devoted the bulk of the article to examining the retaliatory actions the government could take against the North Koreans.

The same day, The Washington Post granted anonymity to officials in order to print this:

Other than noting in passing, deep down in the story, that North Korea denied responsibility, not a shred of skepticism was included byPost reporters Drew Harwell and Ellen Nakashima. Like the NYT, the Postdevoted most of its discussion to the “retaliation” available to the U.S.


James Foley and the daily horrors of the internet: think hard before clicking | James Ball | Comment is free | theguardian.com

James Foley and the daily horrors of the internet: think hard before clicking | James Ball | Comment is free | theguardian.com.

Outcry over footage of Foley’s apparent beheading raises difficult questions about editorial ethics – and our own choices

 

 

James Foley in Syria in 2012
James Foley in 2012. In a statement on his Facebook page, his mother said: ‘We have never been prouder of our son Jim. He gave his life trying to expose the world to the suffering of the Syrian people.’ Photograph: Nicole Tung/AP

 

With depressing frequency in this summer of diverse horrors, we hear tales of desperate human misery, suffering and depravity – and because we live now in an era where virtually every phone is a globally connected camera, we are confronted with graphic evidence of tragedy.

 

The footage of the apparent beheading (to refer to the atrocity as an execution serves only to lend a veneer of dignity to barbarism) of the US photojournalist James Foley at the hands of a British Isis extremist has raised particularly strong feelings.

 

Social networks are banning users who share the footage. Newspapers are facing opprobrium for the choices they make in showing stills or parts of the video. Others, of course, will seek out the video after seeing the row, or else post it around the internet in a juvenile form of the free speech argument.

 

Before considering the rights and wrongs of the position, there is one fact we should face: we are presented with images of grotesque violence on a daily basis. Last month the New York Times ran on its front page the dead and broken body of a Palestinian child.

 

Like Foley, that child was someone’s son, someone’s brother, someone’s friend, and in a connected world there is just as much chance his family saw the photo and its spread as Foley’s will see the latest awful images of their loved one.

 

That photo raised little controversy in comparison to the use of images of Foley. Photos of groups of civilian men massacred by Isis across Iraq and Syria – widely shared on social media and used by publications across the world – caused no outcry whatsoever.

 

It’s hard to look at that and not see a double standard: like many other courageous and talented people, Foley had chosen to travel to the region, and knew the risks that entailed. Others were killed simply fleeing their homes. In a strange and bitter irony, one of the duties of photographers such as Foley is documenting bloodshed in order to show the world.

 

To see an outcry for Foley’s video and not for others is to wonder whether we are disproportionately concerned over showing graphic deaths of white westerners – maybe even white journalists – and not others.


NPR Is Laundering CIA Talking Points to Make You Scared of NSA Reporting – The Intercept

NPR Is Laundering CIA Talking Points to Make You Scared of NSA Reporting – The Intercept.

By and 514
Featured photo - NPR Is Laundering CIA Talking Points to Make You Scared of NSA Reporting Photo credit: Charles Dharapak/AP

On August 1, NPR’s Morning Edition broadcast a story by NPR national security reporter Dina Temple-Raston touting explosive claims from what she called “a tech firm based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.” That firm, Recorded Future, worked together with “a cyber expert, Mario Vuksan, the CEO of ReversingLabs,” to produce a new report that purported to vindicate the repeated accusation from U.S. officials that “revelations from former NSA contract worker Edward Snowden harmed national security and allowed terrorists to develop their own countermeasures.”

The “big data firm,” reported NPR, says that it now “has tangible evidence” proving the government’s accusations. Temple-Raston’s four-minute, 12-second story devoted the first 3 minutes and 20 seconds to uncritically repeating the report’s key conclusion that ”just months after the Snowden documents were released, al-Qaeda dramatically changed the way its operatives interacted online” and, post-Snowden, “al-Qaeda didn’t just tinker at the edges of its seven-year-old encryption software; it overhauled it.” The only skepticism in the NPR report was relegated to 44 seconds at the end when she quoted security expert Bruce Schneier, who questioned the causal relationship between the Snowden disclosures and the new terrorist encryption programs, as well as the efficacy of the new encryption.


Keith Alexander Unplugged: on Bush/Obama, 1.7 million stolen documents and other matters – The Intercept

Keith Alexander Unplugged: on Bush/Obama, 1.7 million stolen documents and other matters – The Intercept.

By 810
Featured photo - Keith Alexander Unplugged: on Bush/Obama, 1.7 million stolen documents and other matters Photo credit: Evan Vucci/AP

The just-retired long-time NSA chief, Gen. Keith Alexander, recently traveled to Australia to give a remarkably long and wide-ranging interview with an extremely sycophantic “interviewer” with The Australian Financial Review. The resulting 17,000-word transcript and accompanying article form a model of uncritical stenography journalism, but Alexander clearly chose to do this because he is angry, resentful, and feeling unfairly treated, and the result is a pile of quotes that are worth examining, only a few of which are noted below:

AFR: What were the key differences for you as director of NSA serving under presidents Bush and Obama? Did you have a preferred commander in chief?

Gen. Alexander: Obviously they come from different parties, they view things differently, but when it comes to the security of the nation and making those decisions about how to protect our nation, what we need to do to defend it, they are, ironically, very close to the same point. You would get almost the same decision from both of them on key questions about how to defend our nation from terrorists and other threats.

The almost-complete continuity between George W. Bush and Barack Obama on such matters has been explained by far too many senior officials in both parties, and has been amply documented in far too many venues, to make it newsworthy when it happens again. Still, the fact that one of the nation’s most powerful generals in history, who has no incentive to say it unless it were true, just comes right out and states that Bush and The Candidate of Change are “very close to the same point” and “you would get almost the same decision from both of them on key questions” is a fine commentary on a number of things, including how adept the 2008 Obama team was at the art of branding.

The fact that Obama, in 2008, specifically vowed to his followers angered over his campaign-season NSA reversal that he possessed “the firm intention — once I’m sworn in as president — to have my Attorney General conduct a comprehensive review of all our surveillance programs, and to make further recommendations on any steps needed to preserve civil liberties and to prevent executive branch abuse in the future” only makes that point a bit more vivid.


Palestina, Israel y la guerra en la red

http://www.surysur.net/2012/07/palestina-israel-y-la-guerra-en-la-red/
jul 2 2012

Es evidente que la metamorfosis de los medios de comunicación ocurre a diario: desde su influencia y su papel como la cuarta autoridad tras los poderes ejecutivo, legislativo y judicial, hasta ocupar el primer puesto. Por consiguiente, somos conscientes de su poder para confeccionar sucesos y mapas, demoler y erigir, darle la vuelta a los acontecimientos y convertir los hechos en trivialidades y viceversa.| NAWAF AZ ZARO.*

 

En la era digital, los medios de comunicación se difunden con mucha facilidad. Su función estratégica —ya no solo influir en la opinión pública, sino también elaborar un criterio determinado en torno a un tema en concreto— ha evolucionado prácticamente hasta desempeñar un destacado papel psicológico y militar.