Estonia, la diminuta república báltica que pasó de ser un satélite soviético a convertirse en la meca tecnológica de Europa – El Mostrador

Conocida como el “Silicon Valley europeo”, Estonia fue el primer país del mundo en instaurar el voto por internet en unas elecciones generales. Y esa es sólo una de las razones por las que es considerada una de las sociedades digitales más avanzadas del planeta.

Fuente: Estonia, la diminuta república báltica que pasó de ser un satélite soviético a convertirse en la meca tecnológica de Europa – El Mostrador


RapidShare anuncia su cierre y tienes algunas semanas para respaldar tus archivos – BioBioChile

RapidShare anuncia su cierre y tienes algunas semanas para respaldar tus archivos – BioBioChile.


Publicado por Eduardo Woo
Rapidshare, uno de los sitios pioneros y más populares para compartir archivos por Internet, ha anunciado esta semana su cierre.

Con un comunicado breve, el portal detalla que los usuarios que tengan cuenta en el serviciotendrán hasta el 31 de marzo para respaldar sus archivos alojados en sus servidores.

Asimismo, quienes tengan extensiones Standard Plus y Premium, podrán ocupar el servicio hasta el 28 de febrero.


Twister: la primera red social completamente descentralizada | Manzana Mecánica

Twister: la primera red social completamente descentralizada | Manzana Mecánica.

Para ser un medio que promete darle más poder a los ciudadanos permitiéndoles intercambiar información libremente, los medios sociales que usamos hoy son sistemas altamente centralizados. Tanto las redes de contactos como los mensajes en sí mismos son intermediados por entidades que tienen la capacidad, y a veces la obligación legal, de interceptar, retener, o borrar mensajes, o incluso de hacer desaparecer complemente a un usuario.

El sistema Diaspora introduce un nivel de descentralización al dividir un sitio en pods, cada uno encargado de mantener la información acerca de un subconjunto de usuarios. Actualmente hay decenas de pods, lo que hace a Diaspora más resistente que Twitter o Facebook, pero de todas formas cada pod constituye un punto posible de control y de ataque.

Twister lleva esta descentralización un paso más allá, permitiendo que cada computador sea un nodo de una red social totalmente distribuida.

¿Cómo funciona?

Twister utiliza 3 tecnologías P2P, como se detalla en este artículo:

Identidades. Las identidades de los usuarios (nombre, clave pública y clave privada) son almacenadas en un ledger (libro de registros distribuido) idéntico al usado en Bitcoin. Cada usuario puede crear una o varias identidades y registrarlas en la red, pagando con una pequeña computación que toma unos pocos minutos.

Perfiles. Los perfiles de cada usuario (nombre, biografía, foto, etc.) son almacenadas en una tabla de hashing distribuida (DHT). Esta tabla contiene una copia de algunos de los últimos posts de cada usuario e información requerida para la distribución de los mensajes a los seguidores de cada usuario.

Mensajes. Los mensajes de cada usuario son diseminados utilizando una variante de BitTorrent. Cada usuario de la red se constituye en una semilla (seed), y seguir a un usuario significa unirse a ese torrent y esperar que llegue un nuevo mensaje. Esto permite recibir mensajes en forma instantánea, sin necesidad de que cada usuario esté permanentemente consultando a la DHT si hay mensajes nuevos. Para enviar un mensaje privado, simplemente el mensaje es primero encriptado usando la llave pública del usuario de destino.


How Secret Partners Expand NSA’s Surveillance Dragnet – The Intercept

How Secret Partners Expand NSA’s Surveillance Dragnet – The Intercept.

By 
Featured photo - How Secret Partners Expand NSA’s Surveillance DragnetTop-secret documents reveal how the NSA has established secret partnerships to spy on huge flows of private data.

Huge volumes of private emails, phone calls, and internet chats are being intercepted by the National Security Agency with the secret cooperation of more foreign governments than previously known, according to newly disclosed documents from whistleblower Edward Snowden.

The classified files, revealed today by the Danish newspaper Dagbladet Information in a reporting collaboration with The Intercept, shed light on how the NSA’s surveillance of global communications has expanded under a clandestine program, known as RAMPART-A, that depends on the participation of a growing network of intelligence agencies.

It has already been widely reported that the NSA works closely with eavesdropping agencies in the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia as part of the so-called Five Eyes surveillance alliance. But the latest Snowden documents show that a number of other countries, described by the NSA as “third-party partners,” are playing an increasingly important role – by secretly allowing the NSA to install surveillance equipment on their fiber-optic cables.

The NSA documents state that under RAMPART-A, foreign partners “provide access to cables and host U.S. equipment.” This allows the agency to covertly tap into “congestion points around the world” where it says it can intercept the content of phone calls, faxes, e-mails, internet chats, data from virtual private networks, and calls made using Voice over IP software like Skype.

The program, which the secret files show cost U.S. taxpayers about $170 million between 2011 and 2013, sweeps up a vast amount of communications at lightning speed. According to the intelligence community’s classified “Black Budget” for 2013, RAMPART-A enables the NSA to tap into three terabits of data every second as the data flows across the compromised cables – the equivalent of being able to download about 5,400 uncompressed high-definition movies every minute.


Privacy under attack: the NSA files revealed new threats to democracy | Technology | The Guardian

Privacy under attack: the NSA files revealed new threats to democracy | Technology | The Guardian.

Thanks to Edward Snowden, we know the apparatus of repression has been covertly attached to the democratic state. However, our struggle to retain privacy is far from hopeless

US National Security Agency
The US National Security Agency threat operations centre in Fort Meade, Maryland, in 2006. Photograph: Paul Richards/AFP/Getty Images

In the third chapter of his History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Edward Gibbon gave two reasons why the slavery into which the Romans had tumbled under Augustus and his successors left them more wretched than any previous human slavery. In the first place, Gibbon said, the Romans had carried with them into slavery the culture of a free people: their language and their conception of themselves as human beings presupposed freedom. And thus, says Gibbon, for a long time the Romans preserved the sentiments – or at least the ideas – of a freeborn people. In the second place, the empire of the Romans filled all the world, and when that empire fell into the hands of a single person, the world was a safe and dreary prison for his enemies. As Gibbon wrote, to resist was fatal, and it was impossible to fly.

The power of that Roman empire rested in its leaders’ control of communications. The Mediterranean was their lake. Across their European empire, from Scotland to Syria, they pushed roads that 15 centuries later were still primary arteries of European transportation. Down those roads the emperor marched his armies. Up those roads he gathered his intelligence. The emperors invented the posts to move couriers and messages at the fastest possible speed.

Using that infrastructure, with respect to everything that involved the administration of power, the emperor made himself the best-informed person in the history of the world.

That power eradicated human freedom. “Remember,” said Cicero to Marcellus in exile, “wherever you are, you are equally within the power of the conqueror.”

The empire of the United States after the second world war also depended upon control of communications. This was more evident when, a mere 20 years later, the United States was locked in a confrontation of nuclear annihilation with the Soviet Union. In a war of submarines hidden in the dark below the continents, capable of eradicating human civilisation in less than an hour, the rule of engagement was “launch on warning”. Thus the United States valued control of communications as highly as the Emperor Augustus. Its listeners too aspired to know everything.

We all know that the United States has for decades spent as much on its military might as all other powers in the world combined. Americans are now realising what it means that we applied to the stealing of signals and the breaking of codes a similar proportion of our resources in relation to the rest of the world.

The US system of listening comprises a military command controlling a large civilian workforce. That structure presupposes the foreign intelligence nature of listening activities. Military control was a symbol and guarantee of the nature of the activity being pursued. Wide-scale domestic surveillance under military command would have violated the fundamental principle of civilian control.

Instead what it had was a foreign intelligence service responsible to the president as military commander-in-chief. The chain of military command absolutely ensured respect for the fundamental principle “no listening here”. The boundary between home and away distinguished the permissible from the unconstitutional.

The distinction between home and away was at least technically credible, given the reality of 20th-century communications media, which were hierarchically organised and very often state-controlled.

When the US government chose to listen to other governments abroad – to their militaries, to their diplomatic communications, to their policymakers where possible – they were listening in a world of defined targets. The basic principle was: hack, tap, steal. We listened, we hacked in, we traded, we stole.

In the beginning we listened to militaries and their governments. Later we monitored the flow of international trade as far as it engaged American national security interests.