Chelsea Manning: I leaked reports after seeing how Americans ignored wars | US news | The Guardian

Manning describes ‘two worlds’ – one in the US and one she witnessed in Iraq – in New York Times interview days after her release from military prison

Fuente: Chelsea Manning: I leaked reports after seeing how Americans ignored wars | US news | The Guardian


Japan Made Secret Deals With the NSA That Expanded Global Surveillance

The documents, published Monday in collaboration with Japanese news broadcaster NHK, reveal the complicated relationship the NSA has maintained with Japan over a period of more than six decades. Japan has allowed NSA to maintain at least three bases on its territory and contributed more than half a billion dollars to help finance the NSA’s facilities and operations. In return, NSA has kitted out Japanese spies with powerful surveillance tools and shared intelligence with them. However, there is a duplicitous dimension to the partnership. While the NSA has maintained friendly ties with its Japanese counterparts and benefited from their financial generosity, at the same time it has secretly spied on Japanese officials and institutions.

Fuente: Japan Made Secret Deals With the NSA That Expanded Global Surveillance


Julian Assange confirms he is willing to travel to US after Manning decision | Media | The Guardian

WikiLeaks tweeted last week that Assange would agree to US extradition if Obama granted Manning clemency. Asked during a web broadcast on Thursday if he would now leave the embassy, Assange said: “I stand by everything I said, including the offer to go to the United States if Chelsea Manning’s sentence was commuted.”

Fuente: Julian Assange confirms he is willing to travel to US after Manning decision | Media | The Guardian


Chelsea Manning did the right thing. Finally, Barack Obama has too | Trevor Timm | Opinion | The Guardian

At the time of her revelations, she was the most important whistleblower since Daniel Ellsberg. Upon hearing the news today, Ellsberg said this: “Once in a while, someone does what they ought to do. Some go to prison for it, for seven years; some accept exile for life. But sometimes even a president does it. And today, it was Obama.”

Fuente: Chelsea Manning did the right thing. Finally, Barack Obama has too | Trevor Timm | Opinion | The Guardian


Edward Snowden’s leave to remain in Russia extended for three years | US news | The Guardian

Earlier on Wednesday, Maria Zakharova, a foreign ministry spokeswoman, wrote on Facebook that Snowden’s right to stay had recently been extended “by a couple of years”. Her post came in response to a suggestion from the former acting CIA director Michael Morell that Vladimir Putin might hand over Snowden to the US, despite there being no extradition treaty between the countries.

Fuente: Edward Snowden’s leave to remain in Russia extended for three years | US news | The Guardian


Julian Assange ready for US extradition, one of his lawyers suggests | Media | The Guardian

A lawyer for Julian Assange has indicated that the WikiLeaks founder is ready to face extradition to the US after Barack Obama commuted the sentence of US army whistleblower Chelsea Manning.

Fuente: Julian Assange ready for US extradition, one of his lawyers suggests | Media | The Guardian


Chelsea Manning’s prison sentence commuted by Barack Obama | US news | The Guardian

The White House insisted on Tuesday that Assange’s offer to submit to extradition if Obama “grants Manning clemency” did not influence the president’s action.

Fuente: Chelsea Manning’s prison sentence commuted by Barack Obama | US news | The Guardian


Obama libera a exsoldado que actuó como fuente en caso WikiLeaks

El presidente estadounidense, Barack Obama, conmutó la pena de prisión a quien fuera fuente de Wikileaks, Chelsea Manning.Según la información de la Casa Blanca, la exsoldado será liberada el próximo 17 de mayo, aunque se encontraba condenada a una pena de cárcel de 35 años.

Fuente: Obama libera a exsoldado que actuó como fuente en caso WikiLeaks


Chelsea Manning on Obama’s ‘shortlist’ to commute prison sentence – report | US news | The Guardian

Chelsea Manning, the army soldier who leaked state secrets in 2010 and has been imprisoned longer than any other official leaker in US history, has called on President Obama to show her clemency in the final days of his presidency, saying that this amounts to her last chance for freedom “for a very long time”.

Fuente: Chelsea Manning on Obama’s ‘shortlist’ to commute prison sentence – report | US news | The Guardian


If the US hacks Russia for revenge, that could lead to cyberwar | Trevor Timm | Opinion | The Guardian

What’s the CIA’s brilliant plan for stopping Russian cyber-attacks on the US and their alleged interference with the US election? Apparently, some in the agency want to escalate tensions between the two superpowers even more and possibly do the same thing right back to them.

Fuente: If the US hacks Russia for revenge, that could lead to cyberwar | Trevor Timm | Opinion | The Guardian


NSA contractor arrested for alleged theft of top secret classified information | US news | The Guardian

Shares183Save for laterThe FBI has arrested a National Security Agency contractor on suspicion of the theft of top secret classified data and documents in an alleged security breach at the same intelligence agency whose spy secrets were exposed by Edward Snowden.

Fuente: NSA contractor arrested for alleged theft of top secret classified information | US news | The Guardian


Chelsea Manning Sentenced to Solitary Confinement for Suicide Attempt

U.S. Army whistleblower Chelsea Manning has been sentenced to 14 days in solitary confinement — punishment the U.N. recognizes as torture — for charges related to her suicide attempt in July, and for possession of an unmarked book in her cell.

Fuente: Chelsea Manning Sentenced to Solitary Confinement for Suicide Attempt


The NSA’s British Base at the Heart of U.S. Targeted Killing

in the heart of the tranquil English countryside, is the National Security Agency’s largest overseas spying base. Originally used to monitor Soviet communications through the Cold War, its focus has since dramatically shifted, and today it is a vital part of the NSA’s sprawling global surveillance network.

Fuente: The NSA’s British Base at the Heart of U.S. Targeted Killing


How the U.S. Spies on Medical Nonprofits and Health Defenses Worldwide

As part of an ongoing effort to “exploit medical intelligence,” the National Security Agency teamed up with the military-focused Defense Intelligence Agency to extract “medical SIGINT” from the intercepted communications of nonprofit groups starting in the early 2000s, a top-secret document shows.

Fuente: How the U.S. Spies on Medical Nonprofits and Health Defenses Worldwide


Chelsea Manning: ‘It is terrifying to face the government alone’ | US news | The Guardian

In an interview with Amnesty International, made exclusive to the Guardian ahead of its publication in the new book Here I Stand, Chelsea Manning describes her feelings of isolation while in the hands of the most powerful government in the world.

Fuente: Chelsea Manning: ‘It is terrifying to face the government alone’ | US news | The Guardian


Filtrada World-Check, la base de datos usada por Gobiernos y bancos con sospechosos de terrorismo

La base de datos contendría 2.240.000 entradas con categorías como “individuo político”, “corporativo”, “militar”, “Crimen-narcóticos” y “terrorismo”. Estos datos estarían siendo utilizados por más de 300 gobiernos y agencias de inteligencia, nueve de los diez mejores bufetes de abogados o 49 de los 50 bancos más grandes del mundo. En total, se estima que son 6.000 clientes los que la utilizan en 170 países.

Fuente: Filtrada World-Check, la base de datos usada por Gobiernos y bancos con sospechosos de terrorismo


Hacked Emails Reveal NATO General Plotting Against Obama on Russia Policy

Retired U.S. Air Force Gen. Philip Breedlove, until recently the supreme commander of NATO forces in Europe, plotted in private to overcome President Barack Obama’s reluctance to escalate military tensions with Russia over the war in Ukraine in 2014, according to apparently hacked emails from Breedlove’s Gmail account that were posted on a new website called DC Leaks.

Fuente: Hacked Emails Reveal NATO General Plotting Against Obama on Russia Policy


Chelsea Manning wins free speech award: ‘It’s easy to feel invisible’ – video | US news | The Guardian

Chelsea Manning, currently in a maximum security prison in Kansas, is awarded the Blueprint for Free Speech prize

Fuente: Chelsea Manning wins free speech award: ‘It’s easy to feel invisible’ – video | US news | The Guardian


Mis nueve meses en régimen de aislamiento fueron una tortura “sin contacto”

En 2010, el ejército estadounidense detuvo a una de sus analistas de inteligencia por filtrar documentos clasificados sobre las guerras de Irak y Afganistán a Wikileaks; hoy cumple una condena de 35 años de prisión. “Me llevaron a un solitario agujero negro de confinamiento. Dos semanas después empecé a pensar en suicidarme”, recuerda.

Fuente: Mis nueve meses en régimen de aislamiento fueron una tortura “sin contacto”


Hackeada la base de datos del Banco Nacional de Qatar

Entre los datos filtrados hay información relacionada con agentes del MI6, miembros de la familia real qatarí y del gabinete del gobiernoLa brecha de seguridad afecta a más de 100.000 cuentas bancarias que contienen cerca de 15.000 documentos, con números de tarjeta de créditos, PIN e información personal

Fuente: Hackeada la base de datos del Banco Nacional de Qatar


Qatar National Bank hit by cyber attack — FT.com

Qatar National Bank, the gas-rich Gulf state’s leading lender, has been rocked by a data leak that has exposed the personal details of many of its clients in a file posted on social media that singles out some Al Jazeera staff and purports to identify security officials. The leak contains references to thousands of alleged transactions records of QNB customers, including remittance data to global banks with thousands of alleged beneficiary names and account numbers.

Fuente: Qatar National Bank hit by cyber attack — FT.com


US Threatened Germany Over Snowden, Vice Chancellor Says – The Intercept

US Threatened Germany Over Snowden, Vice Chancellor Says – The Intercept.

Featured photo - US Threatened Germany Over Snowden, Vice Chancellor Says

German Vice Chancellor Sigmar Gabriel (above) said this week in Homburg that the U.S. government threatened to cease sharing intelligence with Germany if Berlin offered asylum to NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden or otherwise arranged for him to travel to that country. “They told us they would stop notifying us of plots and other intelligence matters,” Gabriel said.

The vice chancellor delivered a speech in which he praised the journalists who worked on the Snowden archive, and then lamented the fact that Snowden was forced to seek refuge in “Vladimir Putin’s autocratic Russia” because no other nation was willing and able to protect him from threats of imprisonment by the U.S. government (I was present at the event to receive an award). That prompted an audience member to interrupt his speech and yell out: “Why don’t you bring him to Germany, then?”

There has been a sustained debate in Germany over whether to grant asylum to Snowden, and a major controversy arose last year when a Parliamentary Committee investigating NSA spying divided as to whether to bring Snowden to testify in person, and then narrowly refused at the behest of the Merkel government. In response to the audience interruption, Gabriel claimed that Germany would be legally obligated to extradite Snowden to the U.S. if he were on German soil.

Afterward, however, when I pressed the vice chancellor (who is also head of the Social Democratic Party, as well as the country’s economy and energy minister) as to why the German government could not and would not offer Snowden asylum — which, under international law, negates the asylee’s status as a fugitive — he told me that the U.S. government had aggressively threatened the Germans that if they did so, they would be “cut off” from all intelligence sharing. That would mean, if the threat were carried out, that the Americans would literally allow the German population to remain vulnerable to a brewing attack discovered by the Americans by withholding that information from their government.


NSA Claims Iran Learned from Western Cyberattacks – The Intercept

NSA Claims Iran Learned from Western Cyberattacks – The Intercept.

Featured photo - NSA Claims Iran Learned from Western Cyberattacks

The U.S. Government often warns of increasingly sophisticated cyberattacks from adversaries, but it may have actually contributed to those capabilities in the case of Iran.

top secret National Security Agency document from April 2013 reveals that the U.S. intelligence community is worried that the West’s campaign of aggressive and sophisticated cyberattacks enabled Iran to improve its own capabilities by studying and then replicating those tactics.

The NSA is specifically concerned that Iran’s cyberweapons will become increasingly potent and sophisticated by virtue of learning from the attacks that have been launched against that country. “Iran’s destructive cyber attack against Saudi Aramco in August 2012, during which data was destroyed on tens of thousands of computers, was the first such attack NSA has observed from this adversary,” the NSA document states. “Iran, having been a victim of a similar cyber attack against its own oil industry in April 2012, has demonstrated a clear ability to learn from the capabilities and actions of others.”

The document was provided to The Intercept by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden, and was prepared in connection with a planned meeting with Government Communications Headquarters, the British surveillance agency. The document references joint surveillance successes such as “support to policymakers during the multiple rounds of P5 plus 1 negotiations,” referring to the ongoing talks between the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council, Germany and Iran to forge an agreement over Iran’s nuclear program.


EE UU condena a un exagente de la CIA por revelar información clasificada | Internacional | EL PAÍS

EE UU condena a un exagente de la CIA por revelar información clasificada | Internacional | EL PAÍS.


Jeffrey Sterling fue acusado de entregar a un periodista datos de un programa contra el sistema nuclear iraní

James Risen, el periodista del ‘Times’ que supuestamente recibió información secreta del agente. / BRENDAN SMIALOWSKI (AFP)

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El triángulo lo forman un periodista del diario The New York Times, un exagente de los servicios de inteligencia y el Gobierno de Estados Unidos. En el centro, un programa de la CIA para sabotear el sistema nuclear de Irán. Es uno de los nueve casos en los que la Administración del presidente Barack Obama se ha querellado contra un espía por filtrar información a la prensa. Y ha vuelto a ganar.

Jeffrey Sterling fue condenado este lunes por nueve cargos que abarcan desde revelar información relativa a la “seguridad nacional” a James Risen, periodista y escritor del Times, hasta obstrucción a la justicia. El exagente, de 47 años, permanecerá en libertad hasta el 24 de abril, cuando conozca su sentencia, tras pasar los últimos cinco años intentando demostrar su inocencia.

El Fiscal General, Eric Holder, ha calificado la decisión del jurado en contra de Sterling como “justa y apropiada”. Según el responsable del Departamento de Justicia, “las filtraciones pusieron vidas en peligro y constituyeron una grave violación de la confianza depositada por los ciudadanos” en el agente.

El Gobierno ha asegurado durante el desarrollo de este caso que Sterling actuó por despecho tras ser despedido de la CIA en 2003. El exagente habría contactado con Risen para denunciar lo que consideraba un caso de discriminación laboral, aunque después acabó proporcionándole más información sobre el programa en el que había trabajado y que tenía como objetivo sabotear el sistema nuclear iraní.

El debate sobre la protección de reporteros ha llegado hasta el Congreso, donde se debatió la creación de una nueva ley ‘escudo’ para la prensa

El caso de Sterling cobró especial relevancia en EE UU por estar implicado un periodista del diario más importante del país y que declaró estar dispuesto a ingresar en prisión antes que revelar su fuente. Según el Gobierno, la persona de la que recibió datos para su libro ‘State of War’ siempre fue Sterling, quien no sólo dio detalles de las operaciones en las que estuvo implicado, sino que también puso en peligro a otros agentes.

La negativa de Risen reabrió además un debate entre los medios estadounidenses sobre la protección de sus periodistas en casos como éste. El Gobierno no se querelló contra el escritor, pero sí le exigió que revelara su fuente. A pesar de que el derecho a la confidencialidad sobre el origen de la información está reconocido en varios países e instituciones internacionales, el Gobierno federal de EE UU no lo estipula, por lo que Risen podía haber ido a prisión.


GCHQ captured emails of journalists from top international media | UK news | The Guardian

GCHQ captured emails of journalists from top international media | UK news | The Guardian.

 

• Snowden files reveal emails of BBC, NY Times and more
• Agency includes investigative journalists on ‘threat’ list
• Editors call on Cameron to act against snooping on media

 

GCHQ
The journalists’ communications were among 70,000 emails harvested in less than 10 minutes on one day in November 2008 by GCHQ. Photograph: GCHQ/EPA

GCHQ’s bulk surveillance of electronic communications has scooped up emails to and from journalists working for some of the US and UK’s largest media organisations, analysis of documents released by whistleblower Edward Snowden reveals.

Emails from the BBC, Reuters, the Guardian, the New York Times, Le Monde, the Sun, NBC and the Washington Post were saved by GCHQ and shared on the agency’s intranet as part of a test exercise by the signals intelligence agency.

The disclosure comes as the British government faces intense pressure to protect the confidential communications of reporters, MPs and lawyers from snooping.

The journalists’ communications were among 70,000 emails harvested in the space of less than 10 minutes on one day in November 2008 by one of GCHQ’s numerous taps on the fibre-optic cables that make up the backbone of the internet.

The communications, which were sometimes simple mass-PR emails sent to dozens of journalists but also included correspondence between reporters and editors discussing stories, were retained by GCHQ and were available to all cleared staff on the agency intranet. There is nothing to indicate whether or not the journalists were intentionally targeted.

The mails appeared to have been captured and stored as the output of a then-new tool being used to strip irrelevant data out of the agency’s tapping process.

New evidence from other UK intelligence documents revealed by Snowden also shows that a GCHQ information security assessment listed “investigative journalists” as a threat in a hierarchy alongside terrorists or hackers.


Israeli intelligence veterans refuse to serve in Palestinian territories | World news | The Guardian

Israeli intelligence veterans refuse to serve in Palestinian territories | World news | The Guardian.

Innocent people under military rule exposed to surveillance by Israel, say 43 ex-members of Unit 8200, including reservists

 

 

An Israeli soldier carries a computer seized in Hebron during search for three Israeli teenagers
An Israeli soldier carries a computer unit seized in Hebron during a search for three Israeli teenagers who were eventually found dead in the West Bank city. Photograph: Hazem Bader/AFP/Getty Images

 

Forty-three veterans of one of Israel’s most secretive military intelligence units – many of them still active reservists – have signed a public letter refusing to serve in operations involving the occupied Palestinian territories because of the widespread surveillance of innocent residents.

 

The signatories include officers, former instructors and senior NCOs from the country’s equivalent of America’s NSA or Britain’s GCHQ, known as Unit 8200 – or in Hebrew as Yehida Shmoneh-Matayim.

 

They allege that the “all-encompassing” intelligence the unit gathers on Palestinians – much of it concerning innocent people – is used for “political persecution” and to create divisions in Palestinian society.

 

The largest intelligence unit in the Israeli military, Unit 8200 intercepts electronic communications including email, phone calls and social media in addition to targeting military and diplomatic traffic.

 

The signatories say, however, that a large part of their work was unrelated to Israel’s security or defence, but appeared designed to perpetuate the occupation by “infiltrating” and “controlling” all aspects of Palestinian life.

 

Written in uncompromising language the letter states: “We, veterans of Unit 8200, reserve soldiers both past and present, declare that we refuse to take part in actions against Palestinians and refuse to continue serving as tools in deepening the military control over the Occupied Territories.”

 

They add: “The Palestinian population under military rule is completely exposed to espionage and surveillance by Israeli intelligence. It is used for political persecution and to create divisions within Palestinian society by recruiting collaborators and driving parts of Palestinian society against itself. In many cases, intelligence prevents defendants from receiving a fair trial in military courts, as the evidence against them is not revealed.”


WikiLeaks revela colaboración de Ban Ki-moon con Israel

WikiLeaks revela colaboración de Ban Ki-moon con Israel.

Escrito por Hispan TV
Lunes, 11 de Agosto de 2014 13:22

El secretario general de Naciones Unidas, Ban Ki-moon, colaboró en secreto con el régimen de Israel para “debilitar los efectos” del informe de investigación que responsabilizaba al citado régimen por nueve ataques a instalaciones de la ONU en Gaza, entre diciembre de 2008 y enero de 2009.



El informe concluye que siete de los nueve incidentes valorados en la investigación fueron causadas por las acciones militares de las Fuerzas de Defensa de Israel (FDI) así como la violación del ejército israelí de la inmunidad de instalaciones de la ONU. El informe agrega que el ejército israelí no tomó las precauciones suficientes para cumplir con sus responsabilidades para proteger la propiedad de las Naciones Unidas, el personal y los civiles que se refugiaban en ella. La Junta consideró que el gobierno israelí es responsable de la muerte, lesiones y daños físicos que ocurrió en esos siete casos, y estimó que el costo para reparar los daños es de más de 11 millones de dólares.

Según ha revelado este viernes la página Web de Wikileaks, en una carta, Ban pidió a la junta de investigación de la ONU no hacer aseveraciones jurídicas al respecto, ya que el régimen de Tel Aviv “continúa trabajando” con el organismo.

El informe mostró que el ejército israelí desempeñó un papel directo en siete de los nueve ataques a los edificios del mencionado organismo en el enclave costero palestino. Además acusó al régimen israelí de transgredir la inviolabilidad e inmunidad de la ONU.

“Las fuerzas israelíes no tomaron suficientes precauciones para cumplir con sus responsabilidades de proteger la propiedad de las Naciones Unidas donde, además de personal, se albergaba a civiles palestinos”, reza el texto.

Asimismo, Wikileaks ha puesto de manifiesto que la asesora de Seguridad Nacional de EE.UU., Susan Rice, conversó hasta tres veces el 4 de mayo de 2009 con el máximo cargo de la ONU, para mostrarle su “preocupación acerca del alcance del informe de la junta de investigación sobre los incidentes en las instalaciones de la ONU en diciembre de 2008 y enero de 2009″.


Barack Obama's Secret Terrorist-Tracking System, by the Numbers – The InterceptThe Intercept

Barack Obama’s Secret Terrorist-Tracking System, by the Numbers – The InterceptThe Intercept.

By and 660

Nearly half of the people on the U.S. government’s widely shared database of terrorist suspects are not connected to any known terrorist group, according to classified government documents obtained by The Intercept.

Of the 680,000 people caught up in the government’s Terrorist Screening Database—a watchlist of “known or suspected terrorists” that is shared with local law enforcement agencies, private contractors, and foreign governments—more than 40 percent are described by the government as having “no recognized terrorist group affiliation.” That category—280,000 people—dwarfs the number of watchlisted people suspected of ties to al Qaeda, Hamas, and Hezbollah combined.

The documents, obtained from a source in the intelligence community, also reveal that the Obama Administration has presided over an unprecedented expansion of the terrorist screening system. Since taking office, Obama has boosted the number of people on the no fly list more than ten-fold, to an all-time high of 47,000—surpassing the number of people barred from flying under George W. Bush.

“If everything is terrorism, then nothing is terrorism,” says David Gomez, a former senior FBI special agent. The watchlisting system, he adds, is “revving out of control.”

Shrug Chart - Josh Begley

The classified documents were prepared by the National Counterterrorism Center, the lead agency for tracking individuals with suspected links to international terrorism. Stamped “SECRET” and “NOFORN” (indicating they are not to be shared with foreign governments), they offer the most complete numerical picture of the watchlisting system to date. Among the revelations:

• The second-highest concentration of people designated as “known or suspected terrorists” by the government is in Dearborn, Mich.—a city of 96,000 that has the largest percentage of Arab-American residents in the country.

• The government adds names to its databases, or adds information on existing subjects, at a rate of 900 records each day.

• The CIA uses a previously unknown program, code-named Hydra, to secretly access databases maintained by foreign countries and extract  data to add to the watchlists.


Keith Alexander Unplugged: on Bush/Obama, 1.7 million stolen documents and other matters – The Intercept

Keith Alexander Unplugged: on Bush/Obama, 1.7 million stolen documents and other matters – The Intercept.

By 810
Featured photo - Keith Alexander Unplugged: on Bush/Obama, 1.7 million stolen documents and other matters Photo credit: Evan Vucci/AP

The just-retired long-time NSA chief, Gen. Keith Alexander, recently traveled to Australia to give a remarkably long and wide-ranging interview with an extremely sycophantic “interviewer” with The Australian Financial Review. The resulting 17,000-word transcript and accompanying article form a model of uncritical stenography journalism, but Alexander clearly chose to do this because he is angry, resentful, and feeling unfairly treated, and the result is a pile of quotes that are worth examining, only a few of which are noted below:

AFR: What were the key differences for you as director of NSA serving under presidents Bush and Obama? Did you have a preferred commander in chief?

Gen. Alexander: Obviously they come from different parties, they view things differently, but when it comes to the security of the nation and making those decisions about how to protect our nation, what we need to do to defend it, they are, ironically, very close to the same point. You would get almost the same decision from both of them on key questions about how to defend our nation from terrorists and other threats.

The almost-complete continuity between George W. Bush and Barack Obama on such matters has been explained by far too many senior officials in both parties, and has been amply documented in far too many venues, to make it newsworthy when it happens again. Still, the fact that one of the nation’s most powerful generals in history, who has no incentive to say it unless it were true, just comes right out and states that Bush and The Candidate of Change are “very close to the same point” and “you would get almost the same decision from both of them on key questions” is a fine commentary on a number of things, including how adept the 2008 Obama team was at the art of branding.

The fact that Obama, in 2008, specifically vowed to his followers angered over his campaign-season NSA reversal that he possessed “the firm intention — once I’m sworn in as president — to have my Attorney General conduct a comprehensive review of all our surveillance programs, and to make further recommendations on any steps needed to preserve civil liberties and to prevent executive branch abuse in the future” only makes that point a bit more vivid.